Titanium Dioxide Eating the White Stuff

Titanium dioxide is a naturally-occurring element and one of the most produced substances in the world today. In its refined form it is used as a pigment in a myriad of consumer items such as food products, paint, paper, cosmetics, sunscreen and more. New studies however, suggest that nanoparticle titanium dioxide may be a carcinogenic agent...


Titanium Dioxide is in Many Products We Use Daily, Including Food

Titanium dioxide is one of the top 50 produced substances for use around the world. Some 70% of all titanium dioxide produced is used as pigment in consumer products such as plastics, health & beauty aids and other personal care product that we use. Toothpaste products use titanium dioxide to get that desirable bright white color as do many other HBA products such as lotions, creams, shave foam, cosmetics, sunscreen lotions and more.

Sunscreen Use and UVA / UVB Protection

Sunscreen products use titanium dioxide (along with zinc oxide) as active ingredients for protection against UVA and UVB spectrum wavelengths. The familiar white tracer-color of sunscreen when applied to the skin is evidence of these two active ingredients in the product.

The ability to grind titanium dioxide (and zinc oxide) into ultra-fine nanoparticles (less than 0.1 microns) makes the white color of sunscreen products disappear quicker when applied to the skin. This nanoparticulate size does not impede the UVA and UVB protection qualities the product provides. Concerns of recent are that these ultra-small nanoparticles because of their diminutive size might be absorbed directly into the cells of the body with unknown and potentially dire health consequences.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been shown to cause cancer in intratracheal tests (introduction of the substance in dry form directly into the lungs via tracheal inhalation) in lab animals. Particulate deposition caused clogging of lung pathways and cellular injury, ultimately leading to fibrosis and cancer in the lab animal. An ongoing human study of workers that by trade mill, handle, distribute, administer, clean or otherwise process titanium dioxide does not indicate any elevated risk to their health. Monitoring the health of these test subjects for cumulative data may in the future factor towards a better understanding of any actual health risks.

Research continues to study whether or not these particles are similarly absorbed via direct application to the body in the common consumer forms. This applies to topically-applied consumer products such as lotions, hair shampoo, cosmetics, toothpastes. The current belief is that no, these nanoparticulate particles do not reach the cellular level in this form either. They are washed harmlessly away with no penetration of skin cells.

Titanium Dioxide in Food Products

Food products such as sour cream, cottage cheese (via the cheese dressing,) ice cream and other dairy products use a small quantity of the pigment to attain that familiar bright-white coloration.

The benefits of titanium dioxide as used in food products are for marketability purposes. Their inclusion probably exceeds the health risk as determined solely by the much finer nanoparticulate grade which is the focus of the ongoing study.

The only factor for the inclusion of titanium dioxide in foods is for visual appeal of the finished product and for no other reason. The food should look appetizing. Cottage cheese would be butter-yellow if not for the addition of a small and prescribed amount of titanium dioxide at the blending stage of manufacture.

Whole-skim milk in the pre-production stage of cottage cheese manufacturing is a light pale-yellow color prior to Separation (cottage cheese is made with part-skim milk with the Butter Fat separated or skimmed.) When most of the butterfat is separated, the result is called "part-skim milk" and in the reduced butterfat state, actually has a light pale-blue color!

The bulk cultures for inoculating (culturing) part-skim milk for cottage cheese is a dark beige/tan brown color. The volume of culture required to produce good acid-development in cottage cheese requires approximately 1-part culture to 40 parts skim milk (e.g., 100-gallons culture for 4000 gallons skim milk.) When cooked, the cheese curd takes on a pale yellow to manila color.

The cheese curds are blended with the dressing (sweet cheese cream) prior to packaging to make the finished cottage cheese product both creamy, sweet and also bright white. If the yellow tint of the cooked cheese curd is not factored-out with titanium dioxide in the cheese dressing the finished product would have an undesirable color at the consumer level.

Titanium Dioxide is What Makes White Paint White

Every time you have ever eaten cottage cheese you have ingested titanium dioxide, this is fact. It is the accepted nature of the product. Cheese dressing that would be added to the rinsed curds is actually rather yellow, much like butter. Adding a measured quantity of titanium dioxide quite effectively 'bleaches' the fatty liquid dressing stark white. When added to the moderately white rinsed cheese curd produces the familiar snow-white product cottage cheese. Note *

The pigment used is also the same ingredient that makes white paint white. This is an unfair comparison however. One could counter that a substance used in cottage cheese manufacturing is the same substance used in white house paint and that statement would also be equally true.

At the exceedingly minute quantities used in food manufacturing there is likely no ascertainable health risk. Titanium dioxide as a pigment in food products is classified as a "manufacturing aid" and not as a food ingredient and therefore can be exempt from the requirement of being listed the label of contents. But it is in there. You just didn't know it.

So, is titanium dioxide inclusion in food and personal care products a health risk? Ongoing research seeks a definitive answer but for now, most health agencies say that no, Titanium Dioxide in commercial products are not harmful.

Note * : Author has over 16 years experience in the cultured/dairy foods industry.


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5 Health Benefits of Malunggay Juice Extracts from Leaves

Learn about the 5 Health Benefits of Malunggay Juice for our better health. Moringa or malunggay leaves are the most common utilized part of the moringa oliefera tree. This plant is called “The Miracle Tree” because of its many health benefits compared to other fruits or vegetables that we regularly consume. This article provides necessary information about what moringa leaves can give to our health.

Malunggay (Moringa Oliefera) is one of most common and popular backyard plants in many areas of Philippines, India and Africa; malunggay is the term used for moringa oliefera in the Philippines. These 3 countries have tropical climates which are suitable for cultivating Malunggay trees. In fact, malunggay or moringa is also known as “The Miracle Tree” because of its numerous benefits such as it contains about 90 essential nutrients, 46 antioxidants and 8 amino acids.

There are many health benefits of malunggay juice in fact all the parts of the moringa tree can be utilized for most health purposes. The leaves are rich in Vitamins A, B, C, D and E which have their own important roles in maintaining our body's health. Moringa leaves are more nutritious because it has more vitamins compared to oranges, milk and carrots. The leaves and flowers are the most utilized parts of the malunggay tree because these are the purest parts for health. Malunggay leaves are mostly also used in cooking and herbal medicines in fact it has been used for decades.

Indian old tradition of medicines also considers the benefits of moringa or maluggay as effective treatments for more than 300 diseases that a human can have. This is also the main reason why the nutrients of moringa leaves are given to African babies to fight malnutrition since malnutrition starts during childhood. Also, athletes have been benefitting from these nutrients for decades because it effectively provides both physical and mental energy to make them go for the gold. Although malunggay or moringa is not a popular plant to many, seniors never for its benefits to the improvement of their memory and effective prevention for alzheimer's disease.

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Nutritional Facts of Malunggay Juice

  • 7 times more vitamin C than oranges
  • 4 times more vitamin A than carrots
  • 4 times calcium and 2 times protein than milk
  • 3 times potassium than bananas
  • 13 different species

Health Benefits of Malunggay Juice

Best Solution for Malnutrition

Malunggay juice is one of the healthiest plants which can be grown from the backyard of people living in tropical areas with tropical climate. In fact, this is one of the best and cheapest remedies for early malnutrition among newborn babies especially in African countries. The rich essential nutrients of malunggay juice are what make it undoubtedly a best remedy for prevention of malnutrition. Malunggay juice is very rich in Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, calcium, iron and protein. These are all essential for maintaining the body's capability to work well and feel better.

Effective Prevention of Bacteria and Fungi

Based on the research or study of Department of Biochemistry at Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, malunggay has been found to contain pterygospermin. This compound acts as antibacterial and antifungal agents thus preventing the severity of bacteria and fungi related diseases. The bacteria and fungi fighting properties of malunggay leaves are actually some of the best health benefits of malunggay juice.

Fights Cancer Related Diseases

Many scientific and medical studies have proved that malunggay juice is very effective in reducing the formation of tumor in some areas of the body because of its Benzyl Isothiocyanate which is known for both treatment and prevention of cancer diseases. Some of the cancers that could be prevented and treated are skin and prostate cancer.

Prevents Rheumatism, Arthritis and Joint Pains

The essential nutrients present in malunggay juice are also proven effective in preventing rheumatism, arthritis and other joint pains. These benefits are the health benefits of malunggay juice that should not be disregarded since many people are suffering from joint problems. In fact, Filipino scientists from the Department of Science and Technology of the Philippines have discovered the anti inflammatory properties of malunggay leaves. This is a very good diet to include by elderly people who have been suffering for joint pains for years.

Enhances Reproductive Health

The aphrodisiac action from the essential properties of malunggay juice significantly improves the reproductive health especially men. This is a very good and healthy juice for couples trying to enhance their marriage relationship.

Essential Nutrients of Malunggay Juice

  • Vitamin A - prevents eye, skin, heart, diarrhea
  • Vitamin C - fights cough, colds, fever and flu
  • Calcium - for strong bones, teeth and prevent bone diseases
  • Vitamin D - prevents or reduces cancer
  • Potassium - healthy brain
  • Protein - for muscle development

Those are the above mentioned health benefits of malunggay juice from its leaves. Until today, the other essential benefits of this miracle plant are still being discovered by many scientists. The most important part is from reading the content of this article we have already understood the importance of this plant to our health.

Different Parts of Coconut Tree and Its Uses to Human

Know more about the various Parts of Coconut Tree and its Uses. Aside from its domestic and industrial uses, it is also beneficial for different medicinal uses. It is good to know about the power of coconut for us to take care of the tree of life and produce more for the future generations. This article provides essential information about this useful tree and its uses. Read more to learn more about this article.

Coconut trees are very useful because they have various parts which can be utilized for various purposes. This article provides useful information about the parts of coconut tree and its uses. In fact, its fruit alone has many uses in the field medicine and cosmetics. There have been numerous studies which proved that it is truly a "tree of life". There are many products which can be utilized using this tree. These products can be used for various purposes like commercial, domestic, and industrial.

Different Parts of Coconut Tree and its Uses to Human

Coconut tree belongs to the palm family called the family of Arecaceae. There are actually 2 types of this tree of life, these are the tall and dwarf. This is usually found on tropical areas or countries around the world like Philippines, India, Hawaii, and other. All the parts of coconut tree are all useful.


The roots of coconut are commonly used in beverages and medicine. These roots are used for dye, tooth brush, and mouth wash. It can also be used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, and other digestive problems.


The pinnate leaves of the tree of life seem to be useless but in reality, it has different uses. The leaves when dried can be used for paper pulp and brooms. It can also be used for creating bags, shades, decors, fans, and hats. Some people in rural areas use it in covering roofs, creating fences, and kindling fires.


When the husk is soaked in salt water, its fibers are separated to produce coir. Coir is commonly used material in creating ropes, mats, and coarse clothes.

Spathe and Guinit

The spathe and guinit are useful in creating headgears like helmets and caps. It can also be used in creating handbags and bakya straps.


Flowers are useful in creating apparels. The sap of the flower can be used in creating alcohol and vinegar. Usually, the sap is boiled in order to make syrup. The syrup is processed and fermented to produce alcohol or vinegar.

Meat / Nut

One of the best parts of coconut tree and its uses is the meat. The meat or nut is a good source of protein and acts as a natural laxative. The meat has many different uses like animal feeds, flower, desiccated, milk, chips, copra, candies, latik, salad, and other sweet delicacies. The oil produced from the meat is useful in skin, hair, and facial care. This is because of its powerful anti microbial effects to the body while the milk is also useful as a natural sweetener and mostly used as an essential ingredient in many dishes.


The water inside the young fruit is the purest and most health benefiting water. It provides proper hydration of the body, natural cleansing of the kidney, and balances the electrolytes in the body.

Those are the various parts of coconut tree and its uses. It is really good to know that there are trees like the miracle tree that can be used to produce different useful products. Thanks to the tree of life, it really gives us products that we can always use.

7 Best Medicinal Benefits of Guyabano Leaves and Fruits

Learn about the Medicinal Benefits of Guyabano Leaves and Fruits for the effective prevention and cure of various common health problems. Its fruits, leaves and tree bark are all essential in the improvement of the body’s health. This article provides detailed information about the uses and benefits of this cheap healthy fruit. Read the rest of this entry to know more about Guyabano.

Guyabano tree or Soursop (Anona Muricata) is a fruit bearing tree popular in the Philippines and other nearby countries. It produces a spiky, fleshy and fibrous fruit which is very effective in the cure of many health conditions. Some studies have proven its benefits in curing cancer, diabetes and other major health problems of human around the world. It is also believed to be excellent in curing internal parasites and other bacterial problems in the body. There are many Medicinal Benefits of Guyabano Leaves and Fruits.

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In fact, not only the leaves are beneficial to health. The bark and fruits are all effective in curing several major diseases naturally. Most people prepare a decoction of its leaves for curing diseases. Some also eat its fruits directly or make a flavored shake. Whatever the form, the most important thing is its medicinal benefits. These are the  Medicinal Benefits of Guyabano Leaves and Fruits.

Urinary Tract Infection

Guyabano fruits are rich in Vitamin C which is very effective in preventing Urinary Tract Infection. It increases the acidity of the urine thus, reducing the presence of bacteria. Vitamin C has also an essential role in boosting the body's immune system.

Digestive Problems

When it comes to digestive problems, Guyabano is also excellent in preventing constipation and other digestive conditions such as colon related diseases. For individuals who wish to lose weight in a natural way, they don't actually need to take laxatives since Guyabano is effective in relieving constipation. It is also rich in fiber which is essential for the overall health of the digestive system.

Leg Cramps

Guyabano is also rich in potassium which is effective in relieving leg cramps and rheumatism. Lack of potassium in the body can cause weakness. In fact, the potassium content of Guyabano (Soursop) is half in bananas.


One of the best Medicinal Benefits of Guyabano Leaves  is the boost of the body’s energy level. For those who always feel tired or weak, Guyabano leaves or fruits are essential in boosting the body's energy. It is rich in thiamin, potassium and sugar which are all essential nutrients in boosting the body's energy. This is an organic energy which doesn't cause negative side effects to the body.


Fresh fruits and vegetables are all essential in reducing the body's bad cholesterol level. Guyabano is rich in Niacin which is essential in increasing the body's good cholesterol level. This is an essential diet to include for individuals who have a high cholesterol level in their body.


Guyabano is rich in iron which is essential in preventing blood related diseases such as anemia. Anemia is a condition of the body which characterized by lack of healthy red blood cells. Some anemic consider taking iron supplements but it is still natural to obtain it from fresh fruits and vegetables.

Skin Infection

The leaves of Guyabano (Soursop) is also effective in curing acne, scars, inflammation and other common skin problems. The leaves need to be crushed and applied to the infected area of the skin.

Those are the Medicinal Benefits of Guyabano Leaves and Fruits. It is really important to consider natural fruits for the prevention and treatment of common diseases of the body. Natural fruits are widely available in the market at very cheap prices. Guyabano fruits partnered with fresh vegetables are perfect healthy diets to consider on a regular basis.

Different Methods of Preserving Fish

There are several methods in preserving fish. Fish preservation involves Chilling and Freezing, Salting, Fermentation, Drying and Dehydration, Smoking, Pickling and Spicing, and Canning

There are several methods in preserving fish. Fish preservation involves Chilling and Freezing, Salting, Fermentation, Drying and Dehydration, Smoking, Pickling and Spicing, and Canning.

There is one thing first to consider, make sure that the fish that is going to be preserve is new and still fresh.

The method of Chilling and Freezing; if the fish is exposed to a low temperature environment, the growth of the microorganisms could be prevented; this could lead to spoilage prevention. The appropriate temperature is 0 degree Celsius which involves the use of ice or a refrigerator. 

The use of ice for chilling is very much convenient and widely used in the markets. If you are going to use ice for fish preservation, make sure that you have sufficient amount of ice. To keep the fish properly chilled with ice, usually the coarser ice should be put on the top while the melted ice should be put below.

Fish can also be preserved by the way of salting. Salt elements will lower the water content below the point where bacteria or microorganisms can no longer live and grow. In the time that water passes out from the tissues of the fish, the salt will going to penetrate the fish tissues until the salt solutions filled it in. This is called as the “osmosis” absorption process.

Fish fermentation can also preserved fish. It is the process of breaking down the protein in the fish caused by an enzymatic action. It is called as hydrolization. In this process of fermentation, the flesh of the fish is allowed to get “ripe”; this is the state where the flesh of the fish will start to disintegrate before it is going to undergo “aging”. In normal process, fermentation takes up to 8 months. It will take less than a month that if pure salt is used and the temperature is increased from 37 degree Celsius up to 45 degree Celsius. In the later fermentation process, the activity is faster

Drying and Dehydration is another technique. This involves the removal of water content from fish tissues until the moisture of the fish is extracted. In this process the growth of microorganisms is prevented. This can be done naturally using the heat of the sun. It is called as solar drying. Dehydration is another method in drying fish. It is done through the use of artificially heated air through the use of mechanical driers.

Smoking is also another method in fish preservation. This process gives the fish a desirable flavor and odor as well as preserving it. Smoking is usually done through four processes. First is cleaning the fish. Second is brining which is soaking the fish in a brine solution. The third is drying and the fourth one is smoking the fish. In smoking process, the length of smoking time usually takes up to 30 to 45 minutes and the temperature is 85 degree Celsius. Hardwoods together with plant leaves are commonly used.

Pickling and spicing; this method in fish preservation used vinegar and other spices. The growth of bacteria and other organisms is prevented by the acetic acid of the vinegar; the vinegar will preserve the fish as well as improves its taste.

Canning is another method in fish preservation. It is the process of preservation that uses hermetically sealed containers such as bottles or cans. The procedure of heating the fish before and after canning can kill bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause fish spoilage.

Discover MORVITE and Create a New Breakfast Shake

Morvite is a powdered cereal. It contains pre-cooked sorghum, sugar, citric acid (E330), Minerals (Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Calcium [E170], Selenium), salt, sweetener (E954), Flavourants (E551, E1518, E1520), Vitamins (Vitamin A, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E [E306], Vitamin C (E301), Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 (E101), Vitamin B3 (E375), Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Panthothenic acid, Folic acid). No cooking is required; you simply add milk or water and eat hot or cold. Easy.

Breakfast - the most important meal of the day.  Don't skip it, they say.  But what if you can't help it?  What if you simply can't afford breakfast foods anymore?

It was only a few weeks ago that I was patrolling the aisles of my local hypermarket, buying amongst other things breakfast foods. 

Ah, look at all the cereals... cute characters on them, cockerels, beautiful colors, chipmunks and beavers and tigers and whatnot.  Cereal is delicious.  How cereals have become part of our lives.   

Then, I look at the price tags.  And for the first time, I come to realise what I've suspected for months if not years:  The amount of cereal in a box really is NOT worth the money you pay for it anymore.  There's just not that much in one box.  3 - 5 servings tops. 

Box of Milo cereal, almost R40???  Look at those things, "Cheerios"??  Are they made from pure gold that the price tag must be what it is?  I mean do they think that only Bill Gates shop here or something?  This isn't friggin' Harrods!! 

That's it;  I know many times before I just chucked it up to what things cost now, and just added it into my shopping trolley and moved on and paid it.  But today, my conscience won't let me.  That's it!!  I'm going to take one last quick look to see what's the least expensive cereal, decide if I might like it or not, and either take just that or leave it altogether and leave.  No more buying 2 - 3 different cereals to have a different variety every morning.  

Then, on a far bottom shelf, looking more like flat bags of something nobody cares for, I spot something.  I can't even make out if it's cereal or not.  They look like bags of cooking maize meal or some kind of medicinal dog food. 

I take a bag and look at it.   What in blazes is this I wonder?  Is it a cereal?  Usually cereals cost anything from R25 to R50.  This costs R8.  Well whatever it is, if it's edible I'll take it because it's slightly more affordable. 

And so, I had discovered Morevite.

Morvite is a powdered cereal.  It contains pre-cooked sorghum, sugar, citric acid (E330), Minerals (Iodine, Iron, Zinc, Calcium [E170], Selenium), salt, sweetener (E954), Flavourants (E551, E1518, E1520), Vitamins (Vitamin A, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E [E306], Vitamin C (E301), Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2 (E101), Vitamin B3 (E375), Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Panthothenic acid, Folic acid). 

No cooking is required;  you simply add milk or water and eat hot or cold.  Easy. 

What I've discovered of course is that it makes a very easy breakfast shake, either alone or with other ingredients like a spoon of yoghurt and fruit. 

And, did I say it's probably the most affordable cereal on the market now?  That's the part that convinced me. 

I'm very happy I discovered this powdered cereal Morvite. 

Morvite is manufactured by Tiger Brands. 

It comes in various flavour names, including vanilla, strawberry, honey, and some others I don't have in front of me  now, though I will say that it's really just the aroma that differs, not really the flavour.  

You can obtain more information about Morvite from here:  http://www.tigerbrands.co.za/Brands/DomesticFood/Grains/morvite/Information.htm


Food and Nutrition Quiz

Here are the correct answers to the quiz of your knowledge of food and nutrition. Scroll down to the bottom of the page and check to see how many answers you got correct.

How much do you know about food and nutrition? See how much you know about juices, animal products,  vitamins, chocolates, and more…

Enjoy and answer as many of the sixteen questions related to the food and nutrition as you can. When you are done, scroll down to the bottom of the page and check to see how many answers you got correct.

1 - Which of the following juices are high in iron?

a) Prunes

b) Carrots

c) Apricots

d) Oranges

2 - All animal products contain cholesterol. Is it true that trimming the fat eliminate most of the cholesterol from meats?

a) True

b) False

3 - Only a few foods contain significant amounts of Vitamin E. What are the best sources of vitamin E?

a) Eggs,

b) Wheat germ

c) Safflower oil,

d) Nuts

4 - Sulforaphane is a compound thought to protect against cancer. Where can it be found?

a) Broccoli

b) Cabbage

c) Tea

d) Kale

5 - Is it true that pink grapefruit usually costs more than white, but it's more nutritious?

a) True

b) False

6 - Which of these foods are rich in calcium?

a)  Dried figs

b)  Broccoli

c)  Dried beans

d)  Almonds.

e)  All of the above

7 - Is it true that honey and brown sugar are more nutritious than white sugar?

a) True

b) False

8 - Is it true that yogurt has more calcium and more B vitamins than milk?

a) True

b) False

9 - Is it true that researchers have found that cocoa, an ingredient in chocolate, may help prevent plaque from building up in the arteries and may reduce the risk of heart diseases?

a) True

b) False

10 - Is it true that butter and margarine have about the same number of calories?

a)  True

b)  False

11 - Is it true that spinach builds strong muscles?

a)   True

b)   False

12 - Is it true that carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have about the same amount of calories?

a) True

b) False

13 - Is it true that breakfast is the most important meal of the day?

A) True

B) False

14 - Is it true that meats described as "lean" are healthier choices?

A) True

B) False

15 - This vitamin is known as the sunshine vitamin

A) Vitamin C

B) Vitamin A

C) Vitamin K

D) Vitamin D

16 - Is it true that Indonesia produces a very expensive kind of coffee made from beans that have been swallowed, digested and excreted by the luak, a small mammal?

A) True

B) False

17 - Is it true that a specific tannin found in cranberries combats the bacteria that cause urinary-tract infections?

A) True

B) False

18 - Fruit products provide two important nutrients: water  and ________________________?

A) - Simple carbohydrates (sugars)

B) - Milk

C) - Soda

D) - All of the above

Food and nutrition Quiz Answers:

1 - a) Prunes

2 - b) False

3 - b) Wheat germ

c) Safflower oil

d) Nuts

4 - a) Broccoli

b) Cabbage

d) Kale

5 - a) True

6 - e) All of the above

7 - b) False

8 - a) True

9 - a) True

10 - a) True

11 - b) False

12 - b) False

13 - a) True

14 - a) True

15 - d) Vitamin D

16 - a) True

17 - a) True

18 - a) Simple carbohydrates (sugars)

Image via Wikipedia

The Production And Uses Of Rice

Rice is the edible grain from a plant also called Rice. Scientifically, Rice is an annual grass in the grass family, Poaceae. Asian rice is classified as Oryza sativa and African rice as Oryza glaberrima.

Rice is the edible grain from a plant also called Rice. Scientifically, Rice is an annual grass in the grass family, Poaceae. Asian rice is classified as Oryza sativa and African rice as Oryza glaberrima. Rice is the primary food for more than half the people in the world. In many regions it is eaten with every meal and provides more calories than any other single food. The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) confirmed that rice supplies an average of 889 calories per day per person in China and in the United States provides an average of 82 per day in contrast to that in China. Rice provides about 90 percent of calories from carbohydrates and about 13 percent from protein which places it as one of the world’s most reliable nutritious food.

Rice is mostly grown in Asia and Africa. The Asian rice is the most popular because of the technological upgrade given to Rice planting in some parts of Asia while the African Rice is hardier and not as popular as the Asia’s. The Rice grain or Kernel contains an embryonic Rice plant and just like other seeds has its different components. The first or the outer cover which is called the hull is a hard protective covering over the bran. The bran consists of layers of fibrous tissue that contain vitamins, protein, minerals and oil; and the endosperm which contains starch. It is the bran and the endosperm that constitute the nutritious edible Rice.

Production:There are two kinds of Rice farming: the upland and the lowland Rice farming. The upland is planted on the dry soil while the lowland is planted in the water mostly swampy. The lowland Rice farming produces more yield than the upland probably because of the availability of more nutrients in the water based swampy soil. In Africa and other developing countries, Rice production is done manually; the planting, harvesting, threshing and processing, in contrast to mechanical Rice farming in developed countries where tractors and other machineries are used in the production of Rice.

The rice plant is a type of grass that has narrow leaves and grows between 60cm to 180 cm tall. It usually has flower stalks emerging from the plant and a loose cluster of branches called panicle emerges out from the top of each stalk with small green flowers hanging from the stem. When the grain is matured, the panicle sags under the weight of the matured kernels or grains. Each of the stems carries so many Rice kernels or grains.

History:The most widely accepted theory is that Rice cultivation originated in Asia around 10,000 BC and this was confirmed by archeological findings in the area. There are evidences that Rice was cultivated in Thailand as early as 4000 BC and later spread to other parts of Asia. It is also believed that Rice cultivation got to Africa and the Middle East by 400 BC; and to Greece and other Mediterranean countries by 330 BC. Rice got to the American colonies in the early 1600s and the commercial production began in 1685. From then, Rice spread to many other parts of the world and many countries began producing Rice.

Uses:Rice is used in many ways both for food and other purposes. Everything about Rice is of economic importance to man: the bran for oil; hull for fuel, fertilizers and insulations; straws from the leaves and stems are used for weaving roof tops, baskets, hats and bedding for animals. The edible Rice also have different purposes like in Japan where they use it to brew alcoholic drink known as ‘the saki’ as well as delicacies like the ‘sushi’ and many other indigenous cuisines. The other forms of preparing the edible Rice for food include the popular fried Rice, Jollof Rice mostly cooked in the tropics, the plain cooked Rice that can be eaten with stews, soups, salads and ketchups etc. In some part Africa, there are local ways they prepare Rice for food. There is the ‘Tuwo’ which is made from smoothly grinded and cooked Rice; it’s being moulded and could be eaten with African soups. The local ‘Rice pudy’ is made from cooked and mashed Rice mixed with sugar and milk.

The brown Rice is more nutritious than the white because of the bran but when the bran is removed and polished, it becomes white with less nutrients. The white Rice is preferred by many because it can be preserved for a longer time than the brown.

Picture of rice farming by IRRI Images (flickr.com) creative commons

Goswill A. Paul is a Clergy and Authour based in Lagos.

The Best International Soups

Soups are eaten worldwide for nourishing and economical value. Know the best popular international soups consommé from all around the world like England, Russia, Spain, France, Poland, etc

It is probable that soup in its earliest form was a complete meal, because it was found hearty, nourishing, economical and wholesome. Being a liquid it is absorbed quite easily and is utilized very quickly by the body. Here are the list of the best and popular international soups, eaten widely known for their taste, flavour and health value.

1. Minestrone: (Italian) Made of chopped onions, leeks and vegetables tossed in pork fat with water and cooked consommé, or with tomatoes, diced of beans, spaghetti, rice, peas, garlic, parsley and chopped basil.

2. Turtle Soup: (England) Consommé of beef, chicken and turtle, flavoured with basil, marjoram, sago, rosemary, thyme, coriander, peppercorns, bay leaf and thickened with arrowroot, garnished with warm cherry.

3. French Onion Soup: Consommé garnished with fried onions served with melba toast with cheese gratinated under the salamander (Soupe A l’Oignon)

4. Cock-A-Leekie: (Scotland) Chicken and veal consommé garnished with juliennes of leeks, prune and chicken.

5. Mulligatawany: Broiled spices cooked in water with tomatoes, onion, served with rice, sliced onions and lemon wedges. In case of non-vegetarian, it is garnished with small pieces of mutton which is cooked with the soup.

6. Bortsch Polanaise: (Poland) Duck flavoured consommé, strongly flavoured with parsley, root vegetables, celery, fennel, marjoram, peppercorns. Garnished with juliennes of leeks, carrot, beetroot, cubes of beef and duck. Accompaniments are:

i). Warm Beetroot Juice

ii). Sour cream

iii). Bouches stuffed with duck force meat.

7. Bortsch Koop: (Russia) Julienes of leeks, carrots, onions, celery, beef, moistened with consommé. Garnished with minced beetroots and cereal with bouchees filled with chicken, forced meat and beetroot juice.

8. Hongroise: (Hungarian) Dices of beef seasoned with paprika, tossed in butter with onions, and flour. Moistened with consommé and garnished with/dices of potatoes, pinch of fennel, crushed garlic and fried croutons.

9. Biere: (German) Veloute with beer, salt, sugar, pepper, cinnamon, garnished with toast.

10. Gazpacho: (Spain) It is a cold vegetable soup of cucumber, tomato and capsicum, garnished with dices of cucumber, tomato and capsicum.

The Best Pancakes Breakfast Recipe My Mother Ever Made I Mean It

Everyone has a mother that made the best pancakes. I didn't realize how good my mother's breakfast recipe for pancakes was until I started trying to make them. These are the fluffiest, best tasting pancakes ever. I mean it.

Mom Made the best pancakes for Us Back in the 50's and 60's, when Food was Real.

You know how they say breakfast is the most important meal of the day? Well turns out they were right. But why? You may ask.

Well I'll tell you. You just have to know how to make it. I am going to share with you the very best pancake recipe ever. No matter where you come from or how many pancakes you've eaten. This recipe is from my mother, from back in the 1950's. You can not beat it. So just take notes and give this a try.

You'll need three large eggs, separated into whites and yolks.

You'll need either buttermilk, whole milk or half and half, I prefer half and half. Don't use skim milk, the consistency will change and you'll just have thin runny pancakes. Yuk!

You'll need a whisk and an electric mixer.

Okay, ready here we go.

Put into a large bowl:

1 1/2 cups all purpose flour

1 tsp baking powder

1 tsp of baking soda

3 tablespoons sugar

½ tsp salt

Whisk these dry ingredients together until they are well incorporated.

In another mixing bowl:

beat the 3 egg yolks with a whisk to break them up

add 1 2/3 cup of the milk of your choice (yes, even the skim milk if you insist)

4 tablespoon of softened butter

½ tsp vanilla

Mean while using a stand or hand mixer, beat the egg whites until stiff peaks.

Now mix the wet ingredients with the dry ingredients, except the egg whites. PLEASE, only mix these together until the dry ingredients are wet, THERE WILL BE PLENTY OF LUMPS. Lumps are good!

Now FOLD in the egg whites. This is important. You want the egg whites to maintain their volume and air. This is what is going to make your pancakes the best pancakes ever. If you smoosh them down to just wet egg whites you've killed them. Shame on you!! FOLD IN THE EGG WHITES.

Now cook them on a griddle or large enough pan that you can flip them. If you use a nonstick skillet you can butter it a little to give you that crispy edge on the outside. Watch for the bubbles on the batter as it cooks, that's the sign it is ready to flip. And please only flip them once. You can peak under them with the spatula if you are uncertain. You are looking for golden brown.

I love to serve maple butter syrup over them. Or you can use fruit syrups or just pick them up and eat them. They are to die for. You will love them. Enjoy!

Is Bratwurst Healthy For You?

Most nutritionists would tell you that Bratwurst is not a healthy food, however Bratwurst does have some serious nutritional value, and here are the reasons why:

For tens of millions of Americans, bratwurst is a favorite food. Sometimes referred to as "Midwestern soul food," the bratwurst is a German sausage named for the way it is cooked. Traditionally, these sausages are to be "braten," or simmered (never boiled) in water or beer.

No nutritionist is ever going to recommend bratwurst as a health food. The facts are, however, that bratwurst has some serious nutritional value. Eaten in moderation, bratwurst may not be a health food, but it can be a relatively healthy food. Here are the key reasons why.

Bratwurst is an excellent source of choline. Choline is an essential chemical in the construction of cell membranes, especially in the brain and the heart. It is a precursor of acetylcholine, used in the brain for electrical transmission from neuron to neuron. It is also a precursor of s-adenosylmethionine, better known as SAM-e, the "feel good" chemical that relieves both pain and depression.

Nutritionists might protest that even though bratwurst is a great source of choline, it is still a high-fat food. That is certainly true. Fortunately for millions of bratwurst fans, the majority of the fat in this delicious sausage is the healthier cis- fat rather than the unhealthy trans- fat. Cis- fats travel quickly through the cell membrane to go to the mitochondrial furnaces where they are needed. Trans- fats, which occur in other foods, tend to get "stuck" in the lining of the cells where they oxidize and attract cholesterol.

But isn't bratwurst high in cholesterol? Yes, it is. No one would want to eat a cholesterol-free veggie bratwurst. However, the cholesterol in a serving of bratwurst is less than a quarter of the cholesterol in a serving of eggs, and most of the body's cholesterol is made in the liver, not extracted from food. Giving up bratwurst is not likely to have any significant effect on cholesterol levels.

And there is one way bratwurst really may be a "health" food. Most people are aware of the glycemic index. This number indicates how fast glucose sugars are released from the digestion of the food. White bread, for instance, is digested into sugar very quickly and has a very high glycemic index. White bread around a brat, however, is digested much more slowly. The meat and fat in the brat keep food in the stomach longer, and release carbohydrates to the colon much more slowly.

There really is no way to convince most people that bratwurst is good for you. Eaten in moderation, however, this tasty sausage can be safe treat for healthy people of all ages. Enjoy your brats guilt-free!

Photo from Wikipedia by Kobako